Skip to main content

Full text of "Experiments on hibernation of the pink bollworm in Texas and Oklahoma, 1952-53"

See other formats


LIBR ARY 
STATE PLANT BOARD 

May 195^ £-279 



United States Department of Agriculture 

Agricultural Research Service 

Entomology Research Eranch 



EXPERIMENTS ON HIBERNATION OF THE PINK BOLLWORM 
IN TEXAS AND OKLAHOMA, 1952-53 if 

A. J. Chapman and L. W. Noble 2/ 



During the winter of 1952-53 experiments on hibernation of the 
pink "boll worm ( Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.)) were conducted at 
six localities in Texas end at one locality in Oklahoma. The purpose 
of these experiments was to obtain information on pink bollworm 
survival under different conditions, especially in areas where it had 
recently spread. In Texas the experiments were at Brownsville, Port 
Lavaca, Waco, Greenville, Lubbock, and Vernon, and in Oklahoma at 
Chickasha. Climatic conditions ranged from subtropical and humid 
at Brownsville to cold and arid at Lubbock. 

Procedure 

Eighty hibernation cages, each containing 3 pounds of infested 
open cotton bolls, were installed at each locality. These cages 
were divided into four groups of 20. In three groups the bolls were 
placed on the soil surface and buried either in the fall or spring 
or were not buried. In the fourth group the bolls were placed above 
the ground to simulate conditions on standing stalks and were buried 
in the spring. 

In all burial treatments the bolls were placed about 2 inches 
below the surface. An estimate of the number of larvae at each 
locality was obtained by examining a sample of bolls at the time 
they were placed in the cages. The cages were equipped with moth 
traps in the spring, and daily records were made on moth emergence 
for computing the percentage of survival. 



1/ This study was made in cooperation with the Texas Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 

£/ The following persons assisted in obtaining the data presented 

in this paper: Ivan Shiller, C. R. Parencia, G. L. Smith, W. L. Lowry, 
and 0. T. Robertson of the Entomology Research Branch, and F. M. Wilson 
and W. P. Senette of the Plant Post Control Branch. 



- 2 - 



• - th< 'or.el Ltl 

"rent localities, the experiments wer .•'•tre I 

dates. The tolls wer- id I gOI o:. I at 

'rownnvil le, or. October 10 at ? vac, ] h j. • h Der 1 ^ at 

the Other locn] 8 rer- rial W«T< rf at 

'lne they were placed Ln the cages. ~"he spring burial :p.te» 
v<»re January 15 at -■ 1 at Port ] 

Marc • • a ther placet. 

Results 

toll worm survival for epc:. treatment u i average 

for all treatments at each locality are recorded la table '. . Tr.e 

y'.cft 1 lata are summarized in table 2. fiatar ter?t.> rat 

were si a 'Dove normal. 

Survival at the different local it:**?: raritd w ■ aver 

percentage r from 0.0^ at Prownsville to l6 # 33 '•* ' 

wr.eville a low carryover vs e erpected owing to tht tax '*, 

.ember 1, that the bolla were place! . tfaatbar 

wit* taaptraturat taring the first part of Septerter caaaad a 

high mortality of larvae In oils on the soil 

weather war followed by heavy rainfall the latter part »f September, 

and this together with mild temperatures throughout tht fall and 

• er etirulated the emergence of moths before I - 

or before cotton was available for propagation U 

Port Lavaca similar conditionr, with s •- -t 

and greater rainfall, werp also favorable for a all and viator 

emergence. At Lubbock the light rainfall I I was un- 

doubtedly i. factor in reducing survival. No satisfactory erplan.it. 
can be given for the wide variation lr. survival at Waco and 

ttnrillt. 

Of the four treatments, fall burial Of the infest Lit 

caused the lowest survival at localities with mild temperatures 

heavy rainfall — that is, at Brownsville, Port Lavaca, «. BO, and 

•enville. In the localities with ^r winter I f|ltl tt»f tt 

t .:.at La, at liibbock, Vernon, ha--survival was lowest 

•xpOtad abovs tht ground, ai llatlAg conditio: - .? on ptai I | 
stalks. At all localities fall burial decreased survival of bOlll 
on the surface below that for spring burial. At al I «s except 

^rownsville survival Mai .-. Ml bolll that rsii • 

11 lurf.xe throughout the experiments. 



- 3 - 



Table 1.— Pink bollworms surviving hibernation under various 
conditions in Texas and Oklahoma, 1952-53 





: Number of: 
: larvae : 


Percent survival in bolls 








On soil surface 


:0n stalks 






:in each : 


Buried 


: Buried 


:Not 


: buried 




Locality 


: treatment: 


in fall 


: in springcburied 


: in spring 


: Average 


Brownsville 


10,800 





o.ou 


0.01 


0.15 


0.05 


Port Lavaca 


6,8?0 


.01 


.U2 


2,5*+ 


1.31 


1.07 


Waco 


5,676 


1.09 


22.15 


25.16 


16.91 


16.33 


Greenville 


g,5UU 


.71 


U.18 


16.20 


2.25 


5.83 


Lubbock 


3,998 


.13 


.23 


2.35 


.03 


.68 


Vernon 


U,552 


.us 


2.UU 


8.13 


.20 


2.81 


Chickasha 


U.18U 


.72 


9.70 


15.97 


f05 


6.61 



Table 2.— CI imato logical data for localities in which pink 
boll worm hibernation experiments were conducted, 
1952-53 





:Lowest 
: winter 


:Raii 


if all September 1 


to June 30 (inches) 




■ 
• 








: temperature 


: 




Departure 


Locality 


:(°E) 


« 
• 


Total : 


from normal 


Brownsville 


38 




11. UU 


-lH.30 


Port Lavaca 


30 




25.32 


+0.33 


Waco 


21 




28.^2 


+9.60 


Greenville 


19 




30.91 


+9.S6 


Lubbock 


9 




U 9 29 


-5.25 


Vernon 


13 




11.03 


-5.33 


Chickasha 


9 




15,56 


-2.51 



II I Mill II III 

3 1262 09240 9241